What we are going to do in this course is this: for validated scientific anatomical knowledge, we are going to create and make openly available anatomical knowledge organization templates (KOTs), based on the original Anatomical Knowledge Organization Templates developed by my teacher, Cornelius Rosse.
sections of NCETMB and NCETM that we address here
anatomy: gross, histology, microscopic, comparative ==> levels of analysis
physiology: how do the anatomical parts actually work, how do their structure and orientation and location influence what they can do, how body systems work together, and how they influence each other ==> regulation, emergent properties, systems science
can we always separate those questions? mouse prostate example
but most of the things we are dealing with will be much more straightforward than that. when it's harder, we'll flag it.
How do we study anatomy and physiology?
Anatomy is easier to visualize with our eyes, with dissections, and instruments like microscopes: "learning to see what we're trying to understand".
Physiology is processes: we need to know how to approach more complicated visualizations
what we can see and touch on dissections: gross anatomy (and you can imagine the jokes punning off of "gross")--formalin smell
histology: study of tissues, built up of cells (cytology)--uses microscope in order to understand how tissues can work (physiology), we have to understand structure of cells on microscopic level (anatomy)
neural tissue made up of neural cells can support memory because their structure can carry electric signal. other types of tissue cannot because they cannot carry electrical signal. so if you see claims that body cells carry emotional memory, you have to choose between that and histology. What we see inside the cell, how the cells are arranged in relationship to each other, how much space is between the cells--all of these material physical anatomical aspects of cells influence what physiological functions the tissues made up of those cells are able to carry out
microscopic anatomy: looking at cells and tissues under a microscope/histology
we are getting into levels of analysis here
two resources that we will draw upon here as necessary are embryology (developmental biology) and comparative anatomy--together, they are called evo-devo
you won't be tested on these subjects. but the knowledge they contain will support our reasoning about the anatomy that we *are* responsible for knowing, so we'll take them into account in order to more fully understand the subject.
comparative anatomy: why do humans have 1 prostate and mice have 5? why do bears have anucleate cells? the answers to these questions provide valuable information about human anatomy, in a (metaphorically) similar way to how learning a foreign language can help us better understand why our native language does things in the way it does. this is one of the bases for comparative medicine: MIN
model organism examples: in-depth understanding
levels of analysis:
(smaller ones we haven't talked about yet)
cellular anatomy and histology
(larger ones we haven't talked about yet)
notice that the levels of analysis are very different from each other. MIN
this will become important when we look at how people try to talk about massage and quantum physics. when we get to that, it will be your job to decide whether what they say makes sense. To do that, you need to be aware of what it means to talk about different levels of analysis, and how structures and functions of the same thing at one level of analysis can be very different from structures and functions of that same thing at a different level of analysis
look at one level of analysis, and understand how it leads to supporting structure and function at the next level of analysis
"system by system and connect the dots"
anatomy: how do we use our "eyes, microscope, and imagination" to develop a good, solid, and in-depth understanding of anatomy and physiology that will support us in providing high-quality, client-centered care?
physiology: how do we use our "anatomy knowledge, logical thinking, and basic knowledge of chemistry and cell biology" to develop a good, solid, and in-depth understanding of anatomy and physiology that will support us in providing high-quality, client-centered care?
"anatomy is very visual"
you can't understand how body parts and systems work (physiology) if you don't understand the anatomy where physiology happens (and, later, pathology--abnormal functioning)
logical thinking: "a lot of physiology is connecting dots, step-by-step" -- how these parts work together
basic chemistry and cell biology that you need to understand to make physiology make sense: plausibility
Function cannot occur without structure
Functions are often dictated by form" MIN
you need physiology to stay alive. dead bodies can have anatomy.
"interconnected: you need both to stay alive, and you need a good knowledge of both to be successful" this is a bridge or an obstacle to integration
"What is life"
Always an interesting question to ponder
Schrödinger's paradox--order comes from disorder
Socrates--objects are a reminisce of previous objects
Hooke & Schwann cell theory (more later)"
when we say we practice massage because we want to make a difference in people's lives, what is the implicit knowledge that we are drawing upon to ground what we say
many viewpoints on this: philosophical, Socrates, "The Republic", the Cave--we're shadows of former objects
science: order comes from disorder==?chemical reactions, cells, movements of molecules and ions into and out of cells--"there needs to be some kind of chaos on the molecular level for us to stay alive"
chaos: sperm in water, hormones rather than vasculature in fish
cell theory (what is a theory), then modern cell theory==life cannot occur
without cell, cell is functional unit that drives life--this is why viruses are not considered alive to understand what it means to be alive, we need to understand levels of organization--at what level does life actually begin?
we have to talk about matter--matter is anything that takes up space and has mass--some kind of physical presence
atoms--smallest simplest forms of matter in nature, can't see, have various behaviors--examples C, H, O,N, K+, various behaviors
molecules/compounds--combinations of atoms; glucose, protein, lipid, hormone, chemical message, structural protein like cell membrane--is a protein or a sugar alive? they don't have a metabolism
organelles--look at a cell, as we will next week, see distinct parts, nucleus, ER, Golgi apparatus, ribosome: sacs with enzymes that drive biochemical reactions--can a fuel factory be alive? no, separate and not organized
cells--organized organelles, start to see life take place--nucleus, DNA inside can start to use all other organelles for chemical reactions--this is where life begins, at cellular level--political implications, pro-life,
tissues--put cells of different varieties into organized tissues
organs--organized tissues of different types
population systems--how long can you go without any human contact? how well
could you survive on your own? we need each other to survive. everyone is
different in levels of need, but we need each other
fractal: population system, analogies with organ systems and with cells
image of levels of organization
where does life begin? at cellular level
"Interrelationships of organ systems
cells rely on organ systems to maintain life
cells drive the function of organ systems
the interrelationship of these two concepts drive life"
we have to go all way down to cellular level for good understanding of
good part of physiology n day 2 day level is keeping cells alive: example
bridge to pathophysiology
what are the pathological changes that occur at the cellular level--what drives disease to happen? what cellular changes occur that make the tissue go awry?
cells drive live; most of our physiology is spent keeping life going at the cellular level
"Requirements for life
growth and change
what organ systems drive each of these functions?"
physical boundaries; borders between tissues, organs, cells, internal ve
external--skin is major outer boundary, connective tissue serve as boundaries inside
why do we need movement? get meal, look at animals who don't get blood clots in hibernation—musculoskeletal responsiveness to changes--changes in environment (int or ext) occur all the time--we need to be able to adapt to them, and if we can't, we will die--
nervous, endocrine--homeostasis later
digestion--breaking food down into simplest building blocks so that we can absorb it and make use of it--1, eat the food 2, break it down 3, absorb it 4, excrete it what don't absorb when finished--if you understand these concepts, then you can understand diseases like Crohn's disease or diarrhea
metabolism--what is metabolism? burning calories? digesting food? only 1/2 the equation--metabolism is about all chemical reactions that occur in body--certain systems help regulate, nervous, endocrine--life-giving chemical reactions occur within cell itself--building up and breaking down molecules in the chemical reactions that sustain life
excretion--where there is metabolism, there has to be excretion, because there are waste products left over--CO2, for example. respiratory system--urinary system, kidneys, waste filtering organs--without kidneys, won't live very long--skin can sweat out some waste, digestion--kidneys biggest one,
cells constantly excreting waste products (lymph)--constantly producing waste products, must be removed--remove organic waste products
reproduction--permits continuity of life--extremely important organ system--we are reproducing faster than we are dying off--panda bears--poaching is a problem--big mammals in general take a long time to reach sexual maturity, so vulnerable to poaching--when are we readily physically to reproduce--puberty--8-13 years after we're born. physiologically, not
psychologically. we as a species not threatened enough to get us to point where repro is big issue for us.
growth and evolution--growth necessary for life to take place. compare birth. grow to self-sustainable, mature organism. evolution as well--evolution is just change--adapting to environments and surviving--we need to evolve to changes in environment as well--and animal or plant that does not evolve will not survive--
oxygen big part of making ATP and cellular energy--big metabolic deal
nutrition--calories, fuel, making energy, protein to make plasma proteins, need structure--protein deficient people look very wasted away because digesting own muscles--vitamins, minerals, proteins fats for energy storage, structural purposes, driving metabolic reactions
water main transport medium, bulk of body is water--most people have ~40 liters of water in blood and tissues, helps drive chemical reactions, thrermoregulator
temp--is big, 98.6, but without temp, metabolism going to go nuts, ability to circ O2, metabolism, going to die if hindered --too high or too low
pressure--why pressure? important for breathing, transport--no one ever talks about BP in good context, always hypertension--BP necessary because without it, how would we circ blood, filter nutrients out of capillaries into tissues
respiration--must be enough pressure to drive oxygen out of air, into our tissues,
maintenance of a stable internal environment, i.e., balance
dynamic equilibrium--we operate around various set points that fluctuate when exposed to various stimuli
if we fail to return back to our normal set points, disease and sickness ensue"
what constitutes life, what life is, homeostasis is a big, not well-understood concept
we strive for on day to day basis==
dyn equil. -- 98.6F your temp goes up and down, all during the day
go outside in cold weather, your body tem goes down
body water levels maintained by monitoring sodium levels, if osmolarity drops below certain point, body salts get too high, we get dehydrated, and need to get fluid back into our system--
certain set points that we need to survive=-homeostasis maintains balance around those certain set points how do we know what those points are?
always fluctuate around set points, but if we fluctuate too far, and don't get back to the set point, that's some form of disease
98.6F--temp goes down in cold air, so physiological mechanisms protect us, and help us reverse the drop in temp
body water level by monitoring sodium levels, osmolarity drops, salt too high, dehydrate, have to get water back in system
how do we know what a "normal" body temperature is, what a normal sodium level is, set points correspond to lab values among other things
nutrient levels, metabolism, what organ system is responsible for constant monitoring of this?
the most important system in human body is nervous system. some systems self-regulate to some degree, but regulation of body systems is the nervous system's job
if we fail to return back to normal set points, sickness occur--BP goes up and down, sit, stand, walk run move around, BP up to meet increased demand on body, as we age, BP tends to rise. we have mechanism that tend to compensate, but if those mechanisms fail, that's high BP
if our own systems fail, that's where medical intervention comes in
if body can't regulate BP, pills prescribed--bring in Olney at this point--if we need help to get physiology back to normal
maintain balance through feedback loops
"maintenance of homeostasis
always exposed to internal and external stimuli
requires constant monitoring by the nervous system
main form of regulation is through feedback loops
two loops: negative and positive feedback"
some organs do kind of self-regulate, like pancreas self-regulates insulin secretion, for most part in general, nervous system regulates everything
when nervous system detects changes in body, it needs to "figure out" (metaphorically) how to return to normal.
uses feedback loops
"negative feedback loop
three components: receptor, control center, effecter organ"
loop: something circular
negative most common regulatory mechanism in human body
receptor, control center, effecter organ
neg feedback begins with receptor, specialized cell or group of cells in nervous system, whose job is to detect changes--stimuli--stimulus, singular--factors that upset or disrupt physiology, changes in environment
all these receptors do is constantly wait for a stimulus
receptor detects a change, generate impulses to control center--main
control center in body is brain--central nervous system is brain and spinal
cord. receptors pick up on changes, send info about changes to control
center. control center (CNS) "develops" "plan of attack" for bringing situation back to normal (xref with innervation)
communicates with effector organ. effector organ carries out right response to get us back to normal set point, receptors, control center, effectors
shut off, because continuing to correct would over compensate, and take us in the wrong direction (tacking in a sailboat)
example: classical example: thermostat. cold air comes into house, thermostat set at 70F. 0F air comes in for 3 minutes. cold air came in, now house temperature of kitchen lower. as a result, something picks up on this, thermostat is receptor as well. temp to 65F, thermostat detects.
thermostat sends signal to heater, turns heater on. heater starts pouring out heat, only until gets back to 70F. then shuts off so house doesn't get too hot above 70F
overheating compared to hyperthyroidism. if we don't shut off response, that could kill us, oversecrete hormone while trying to get back to normal.
BP: say BP goes up from 120/80, 145/86 mm Hg. we need to get it back down.
if exercising, ok, but don't want it that high at rest. there is a baroreceptor (baro means heavy or pressure). the baro receptors are in carotid arteries in neck in carotid sinuses, sensitive only to changes in BP
BP up, baroreceptors detect it, communicate with control center. control center in this case is brainstem. effector organs in this system are heart and blood vessels (arteries).
heart rate will respond to high BP by going down, output of blood volume pumped out will go down. are we going to increase dilate or constrict decrease diameter of arteries down HR and dilated arteries with less pressure will make BP go down dilated arteries easier blood flow, then entire response shuts off at reset to 120.80
what happens if gets too low? pass out, bc brain not getting enough oxygen
carotid sinus massage
vasovagal syncope response to high-stress situations.
negative feedback is most common regulatory mechanism in body why is it called negative?
negates or changes a stimulus--back to normal and then shut off when get back to set point.
"positive feedback loop
can be life-threatening"
this is what we call an amplifying cycle
positive feedback is good but can be life-threatening as well, because it just keeps getting greater and greater and greater over time--there is no automatic shutoff valve, like there is on a negative feedback system
like neg, has to be some kind of stimulus that triggers it to begin
here's the difference
example childbirth--once uterus stretches to certain point, it starts generating active nervous potentials to brain, and the brain is going to respond by releasing hormone called oxytocin
uterus got stretch, stimulus is baby in this situation that stretched uterus, oxytocin makes smooth muscle of uterus start to contract, it's a labor contraction, what happens with labor contractions over time, they get worse, more intense, they do not get more pleasant over time, intensity goes up, and the amount of time in between the contractions goes down.
start out 20-30 minutes apart, by the time it's time to give birth, they're about 20-30 seconds apart. so there's a stimulus that activated the response, but the response continued to enhance, it got greater and greater and greater over time.
the only thing that's going to shut off a positive feedback loop is when the stimulus--in this case, the baby--is removed from the body
removal of stimulus turns off positive feedback
fever another example, this can be threatening,
you have pathogen within you
big initial spike in body temp, maintain high body temp, or slowly rises,
if body temp gets too high, it can kill you
if body temp gets too high, requires medical intervention, or it will kill you
my fever story
blood clotting mechanisms is pos feedback mechanism--too many clots stuck in circulation can impeded blood flow to essential organism somewhere
my blood clotting story
problem is, if too intense of stick around too long, can threaten our life, but it is a kind of feedback loop
you have the stimulus (stretch receptors in uterus picking up on presence of baby_
communicating with control center of brain on this
the difference here is the brain is continuing to amplify an amplify and amplify, making the response greater and greater and greater until the stimulus is gone
neg--stimulus triggers response to get back to certain set point, then stops--you can't get rid of body temperature or body water, can['t get rid of stimulus itself
pos & neg fb--we use these to maintain and regulate homeostasis--physiological balance
this is what our everyday life revolves around--keeping ourselves balanced, keeping all our set points in check to keep ourselves alive
topics and concepts you need to understand
understand difference in levels of analysis, claims about "balance", what has been shown and what hasn't, semantics